Novel Separation Processes and Their Applications

Shefali Thakur

Department of Chemical Engineering; Institute of Chemical Technology; Mumbai 400019

Antara Deo

Department of Chemical Engineering; Institute of Chemical Technology; Mumbai 400019

Mokshada Dhawale

Department of Chemical Engineering; Institute of Chemical Technology; Mumbai 400019



Separation processes are an integral part of any process flow sheet. Various techniques can beused to separate
the mixture depending on the raw mix. Sometimes, two or more methods must be used to get the desired
product. Differences in chemical and physical properties also help decide the separation technique that must
be used. An external agent, any form of energyor matter, can act as the driving force for the separation. Some
of these techniques are conventional processes like distillation, filtration, adsorption, and absorption, which
have already been well-studied and extensively used. These days newer separation processes called novel
separation processes, such as membrane separation, gas separation, supercritical fluid extraction, use of
ultrasonics, chromatographic separation, magnetic projection, and liquid- liquid extraction, among many
others, are gaining importance in the area of research and implementation. Novel processes were first
implemented as analytical tools in laboratories.

However, they developed rapidly to become significant commercially and technically. The development in gas separation techniques has led to using Liquified Natural Gas in Air Separation Units to produce high-purity nitrogen and oxygen4. Novel separation methods also include ultrasound to enhance separation processes like extraction, demulsification, and crystallisation. Pressure-driven processes are a subset of membrane separation techniques where pressure is utilised as a driving force for separation, with a
semipermeable membrane acting as a barrier. This method has various applications ranging from wastewater treatment to dairy processing. Chiral chromatography is used for enantiomeric separations by the use ofHPLC. A new magnetic separation process proposes the separation of plastics by submerging them in a paramagnetic medium and attaching a magnet. This results in moving the particles inside the medium with different trajectories, thereby separating them.

This article will scrutinise and briefly describe the essential aspects and developments of novel
separation processes and their applications.


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